Study Notes on Material for CTET & TET Exam

Meaning of Material: Anything which has mass and occupies space is called Material. The material is made up of particles, which are always in a state of movement.

What does property mean?

Each state solid, liquid and gas has properties. A property describes how an object looks, feels, or acts. So that means that liquids look, act, or feel differently than solids or gases. One property of all matter, whether it’s a solid, liquid, or gas, is that it takes up space and has mass. The forces of attraction between the particles are maximum in solids, intermediate in liquids and minimum in gases.

Classification of Material

Matter can be classified into:
a) On the basis of states

Study Notes on Material for CTET & TET Exam

b) On the basis of chemical composition
A material is divided into solids, liquids, and gas on the basis of its state:
Solids: In a solid, the particles (ions, atoms or molecules) are closely packed together. The forces between particles are strong so that the particles cannot move freely but can only vibrate. As a result, a solid has a stable, definite shape, and a definite volume. Solids can only change their shape by force, as when broken or cut. Solids are rigid i.e on applying force they may break but it is difficult to change their shape.
Liquids: Liquids take the shape of their container. Liquids have definite volume but not definite shape. Liquids have surface tension. Liquids move around. The particles in liquids are farther apart than those of solids, so they can move around more. That’s why liquids take the shape of their container.
Gases: Gases neither have definite shape, nor definite volume. The gaseous particles are in a state of random movement. The rate of diffusion of gas is higher and lower for the solids.
Plasma: The state consists of super energetic and super excited particles. These particles are in form of ionized gases i.e. the fluorescent tube and neon sign bulb. The fluorescent tube contains helium gas or other gas and neon sign bulb contain neon gas.
Bose-Einstein condensate: Albert Einstein and Satyendra Nath Bose predicted the Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC). BEC is the fifth state of matter. BEC formed by cooling of a gas of extremely low density.

Quick Facts about properties of Material:

The states of matter are inter-convertible. The state of matter can be changed by changing temperature or pressure. On increasing the temperature of solids, the kinetic energy of the particles increases.
Melting point: The temperature at which solid melts to become a liquid at the atmospheric pressure is called its melting point. The melting point of ice is 273.16 K.
Boiling Point: The temperature at which a liquid starts boiling at the atmospheric pressure is called its boiling point.
Vaporization: The process of conversion of a liquid into its vapor is called vaporization.
Sublimation: It is the change of gaseous state directly to a solid state without going through liquid state, and vice versa.
Evaporation: The process of change of a liquid into vapors into at any temperature below its boiling point is called evaporation. Evaporation is a surface phenomenon. Particles from the surface gain enough energy to overcome the forces of attraction present in the liquid and change into the vapor state.
Latent heat of vaporization: It is the heat energy required to change 1 kg of a liquid to gas at atmospheric pressure at its boiling point.
Latent heat of fusion: It is the amount of heat energy required to change 1 kg of solid into liquid at its melting point.

On the basis of Composition, material can be divided into

a) Mixtures
b) Pure substances
Mixtures: – A mixture consists of two or more substances (element or compound) mixed together without any chemical bond. Mixtures are of two types: Heterogeneous Mixture and Homogeneous Mixture.
Pure substances: – These are the substances in which, all the constituent particles are of same chemical nature. Pure substances are mainly of two kinds: Elements and Compounds.

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